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Minerals In India
All rocks on earth have minerals in them.Metals are taken out of minerals.A rock containing large amounts of a particular mineral is called the ore of that mineral. Most of the mineral ores are found below the surface of the earth.Digging out mineral ores from the earth is called mining. Deep holes are dug into the earth to take out mineral ores .Such holes are called mines.
Minerals are broadly divided into metallic and non -metallic.Metallic minerals are iron,copper, gold and silver.Non metallic minerals include salt,coal,petroleum,limestone and precious stones.Coal and petroleum are used as fuel.They are called mineral fuels.
Iron is used to make tools,utensils,machines,bridges,coaches and railway engines.India is the world's 9th largest producer of iron ore.Most of the iron ore mines are in Jharkhand,Orissa,Chattisgarh,MP,Karnataka,Goa and Maharashtra.
Iron and steel producing factories are in Jamshedpur,Rourkela,Bhilai,Durgapur and Bokaro.
Manganese is used to make steel and various alloys.Its reserves are found in Karnataka,Orissa,MP,Maharashtra and Goa.India is world 2nd largest producer of manganese.
Aluminium is extracted from Bauxite.It is used to make aeroplanes,utensils and other household items.Jharkhand,Orissa,Gujarat,Maharashtra,Chattisgarh,MP and TN are the states where reserves of bauxite are found.
Coal is used mainly as a fuel for running factories ,in cooking and for making electricity.There are four types of coals-peat,lignite,bituminous and anthracite.The best quality coal is anthracite.India has large reserves of bituminous coal.
Coal mining areas are in Jharkhand,West Bengal,MP and Chattisgarh.The important coal-mining centres are Jharia,Raniganj,Dhanbad,Bokaro,Korba and Neyveli.
Mineral oil or Petroleum is refined to make petrol,diesel,kerosene etc.There are three major mineral oil producing regions in India.They are in Assam,Gujarat and near Mumbai.The main oil producing centres are Bombay High,Digboi,Ankleshwar,Cambay and Sibsagar.The main oil refineries are at Digboi,Kochi,Mathura,Haldia,Barauni,Mumbai and Chennai.